Cardinal Mazarin and Ciphers

Instances of use of cipher by Cardinal Mazarin are collected herein. The location of the original letters in the Archives des Affaires étrangères etc. (apparently not on the Web) is found in the publications of Mazarin's letters.

Cardinal Mazarin took the place of chief minister after Cardinal Richelieu's death on 4 December 1642, and served under Louis XIII (until the King's death in May 1643) and Louis XIV (until Mazarin's death in 1661).

Le Tellier

In January 1643, Mazarin sent Le Tellier a cipher, with an instruction to use the one Le Tellier gave Longueville in the meantime. (Le Tellier was Indendant of Justice for the French military in Piedmont. Mazarin relied on him to keep the peace in Savoy, which he had mediated in 1642 (Lettres, i, p.lxix). He became Secretary of State for War in 1643 with the help of his friendship with Mazarin.)

Je vous enverray à la première occasion un chiffre, et ce pendant, si vous avez besoin d'en user, vous pourrez vous servir du mesme que vous avez donné à M. le duc de Longueville.
Mazarin to Le Tellier, 21 January 1643 (Lettres, i, p.lxxii)

Mazarin's letter to Le Tellier, Brühl, 11 July 1651, was so secret that there is a note in the margin that it should be deciphered by Le Tellier himself ("a deschifrer par M. Le Tellier"). (Lettres, iv, p.323, n)


In March 1643, Mazarin sent a cipher to Olivier de Castellan, maréchal de camp.

Vous m'obligerez fort de me donner avis de ce qui se passe au lieu où vous estes. Pour le pouvoir faire seurement, je vous envoye un chiffre.
Mazarin to Castellan, 28 March 1643 (Lettres, i, p.134)

Cardinal Bichi

In a letter of 1643 to Cardinal Bichi (Wikipedia), Mazarin attached a separate article that is so secret that he requested that the cardinal decipher himself.

En reponse aux chiffres et aux lettres de Votre Eminence, ...
J'ai ecrit à part cet article, afin qu'il soit déchiffré par Votre Éminence, en la suppliant de ne pas en laisser connaître la moindre chose....
Mazarin to Cardinal Bichi, 24 August 1643 (Lettres, i, p.307, 312, 314)

Trust in Courier Than in Cipher

At one time, Mazarin arranged for a memoire to be enciphered, but changed his mind to use a courier.

J'ay fait prendre la resolution de vous depescher en toute diligence ce courrier pour vous porter le memoire que je viens d'envoyer à M. le comte de Brienne pour le mettre en chiffre. Il seroit inutile de vous recommander de ne perdre point de temps d en conferer avec M le prince d Orange et nous en faire sçavoir au plus tost ses sentimens, l'importance de la matière vous y conviant assez, aussy bien qu au secret.
Mazarin to Thuillerie, 9 March 1644 (Lettres, i, p.611)


Mazarin also used cipher with Turenne (Lettres, i, p.535; ii, p.25). In 1644, Turenne was sent to Germany to reorganize the army there.

In June 1645, Mazarin had to send him a (presumably new) cipher, because Turenne said he had lost his copy (apparently in his note of 28 May).

Je vous envoye un chiffre, puisque vous avez perdu celuy que vous aviez.
Mazarin to Turenne, 10 June 1645 (Lettres, ii, p.192)

Prince de Condé (Duc d'Enghien)

In July 1644, Mazarin sent a cipher to duc d'Enghien (later, Prince of Condé, known as Grand Condé). (Enghien had won a decisive victory over the Spanish at the Battle of Rocroi in northern France in May 1643. In 1644, he was sent to Germany. He marched through hostile territories and, in early July, made a junction with Marsin. Upon hearing the difficulties of Turenne, he moved to the upper Rhine and, with Turenne, took Fribourg. (Bernard Pujo, Le Grand Condé, p.88-94; Wikipedia))

Je vous envoye un chiffre, affin que, lorsque vous serez entré en pays ennemy, vous puissiez me faire sçavoir plus seurement les choses qui devront estre secrettes.
Mazarin to Conde, 9 July 1644 (Lettres, ii, p.5)

A few days later, Mazarin excused himself for not writing in his own hand saying that, being Italian, he was not familiar with orthography in French (Pujo, p.88; similar note is in Lettres, i, p.720).

Sometimes, it was not necessary to use a cipher.

Vous verrez, par le memoire cy joinct, que je n'ay pas cru devoir faire mettre en chiffre, ne doutant point qu'il ne vous soit remis en toute seureté, les pensées que l'on a icy sur ce que vous pourriez, dans la conjoncture presente, entreprendre de plus utile pour le service du Roy et pour vostre gloire.
Mazarin to Conde, 31 July 1644 (Lettres, ii, p.9)

On the other hand, in one occasion, Mazarin reminded the prince to use a cipher.

Vous n'oublierez pas, s'il vous plaist, de vous servir du chiffre, que vous avez, quand ce que vous nous escrirez devra estre secret.
Mazarin to Conde, 11 July 1645 (Lettres, ii, p.201)

Princess of Phalsbourg [Pfalzburg]

Phalsbourg [Pfalzburg] was a principality, acknowledged by the Holy Roman Emperor, separate from Lorraine from 1629-1660 under Henriette of Lorraine (Wikipedia). The princess kept writing to Mazarin on princes in Lorraine. In their correspondence, names are disguised or encoded. (Lettres, i, p.648, n.1) In Mazarin's letter to the Princess of Phalsbourg dated 23 August 1647, "22" represented "le duc de Lorraine." (Lettres, ii, p.479)

Cardinal Orsini [Ursins]

On 18 October 1647, Mazarin sent a cipher to Cardinal Orsini [Ursins] (Wikipedia) for matters that the cardinal would communicate only to Mazarin (Lettres, ii, p.964).

The Fronde

No sooner did the Peace of Westphalia end the Thirty Years' War than France was involved in a civil war called the Fronde: the Parliamentary Fronde (1648-1649) and the Fronde of the Princes (1650-1653). During the war with the Habsburgs, discontent grew against the Spanish queen (Anne of Austria) and the Italian minister, Mazarin.

In January 1650, the Prince of Condé was arrested with his brother Prince of Conti and brother-in-law Duke of Longueville, while Turenne managed to escape to Stenay. Turenne allied himself with Spain, and in June 1650, the Spanish troops entered France. (Pujo, p.171) Turenne's siding with the Frondeurs meant that the cipher shared with Turenne had to be replaced.

M. de Turenne a le chiffre des gouverneurs des places; il est important de le changer avec tous et [de] leur escrire de ne plus se servir de l'autre.
Mazarin to Le Tellier, 17 June 1650 (Lettres, iii, p.556)

The cause of the Second Fronde was opposition to the Italian minister, Mazarin. In February 1651, Condé was released, and Mazarin went into exile in Germany.

Madame de Chevreuse

Madame de Chevreuse was the center of many intrigues, including one against Mazarin. When a plan to marry her daughter to the prince of Conti came to nothing, she offered to help Mazarin in exile (Perkins, p.128). (Mazarin returned to Paris in February 1653.)

When reporting this to Lionne, queen's secretary, on 28 April 1651, Mazarin attached a copy of her letter to Noirmoutier in (Mazarin's?) cipher (Lettres, iv, p.147) (Noirmoutier also changed sides to Mazarin (Wikipedia)). That Madame de Chevreuse had provided Noirmoutier a cipher can be seen in the following remark at the end of her letter.

Mandez-moy aussy si cette lettre et mon chiffre vous ont este rendus seurement.
Chevreuse to Noirmoutier, Paris, 17 April 1651 (Lettres, iv, p.147 n.4)

At one time, Mazarin could not write to Madame de Chevreuse because he did not have a cipher with her.

Je ne fais point response a M^me de Chevreuse, parce que, n'ayant point de chiffre avec elle, je ne le pourrois faire par cette voye, qui n'est point tout-à-faire seure, sans courre risque que cela luy prejudiciast dans cette conjoncture
Mazarin to l'Abbe Fouquet, Melun, 21 June 1652 (Lettres, v, p.130 )

Abbe Fouquet

Basile Fouquet, known as the Abbe Fouquet, was a brother of the financier Nicolas Fouquet. He was the head of Mazarin's secret police.

There are some undeciphered cipher symbols such as 35, 46, 47, and 72 (inferred to be Abbe Fouquet, Reine, Mazarin, Mazarin) in Mazarin's letters addressed to him (Lettres, iv, p.286, p.297, n.3; the original is in BnF fr.23202, which I have not seen).

The Abbe Fouquet sent Mazarin a cipher, but explains that Roussereau, one of his secretaries, does not know cipher at all.

Cependant ayez l'esprit en repos et fiez-vous sur ma parole que personne n'aura cognoissance de ce que vous m'escrivez; que je conserve dans ma cassette toutes vos depesches et que je commenceray a me servir, l'ordinaire prochain, du chiffre que vous m'avez envoye. Je suis pourtant obligé de vous dire que Roussereau n'a pas vostre chiffre; qu'il ne le sçait point, n'ayant jamais chiffré ny deschiffré aucune depesche que je vous aye faicte et que j'aye receu de vous, et cela est la pure verité.
Mazarin to Abbe Fouquet, Brühl, 4 July 1651 (Lettres, iv, p.300)

Some letters of Mazarin to Fouquet mention "la personne qui n'est pas dans le chiffre" (the person who is not in the cipher) (Lettres, iv, p.589, v, p.82), considered to refer to the princess of Palatine.

Separate Ciphers for Agents in England

Prince Charles, son of Charles I, executed by the republicans in 1649, lived in exile in France, and English privateers were harassing the French trade. Mazarin sent Antoine de Bordeaux-Neufville to London in December 1652 (styled as ambassador from March 1654 (Lettres vi, p.131, n.3)) and recognized the commonwealth, but the commercial conflict persisted. When the Anglo-Dutch War (1652-1654) came to a close, Mazarin sent Paul de Baas [or Batz] de Castelmore, an elder brother of Charles Baas de Castelmore, the model of D'Artagnan. France was still at war with Spain (even after the Peace of Westphalia in 1648), and England had to be prevented from allying with Spain. (John F. Battick (1973), "Cromwell's Diplomatic Blunder", Albion, Vol.5, No.4, pp.279-298 (JSTOR); Laurent Curelly (2012), "'The French, those Monkies of Mankind': the Fronde as seen by the newsbook Mercurius Politicus" (OpenEdition))

De Baas was provided with a separate cipher of his own.

Il [the messenger] ne sçait rien, pourtant, du contenu de la presente depesche, que j'ay faict escrire de vostre chiffre, afin que vous la deschiffrassiez (sic) vous-mesme, nul autre que vous et M. l'Ambassadeur n'en ayant cognoissance.
Mazarin to Baron de Baas, Paris, 27 March 1654, Lettres, vi, p.139

Turenne (1654)

In August 1654, marshal Turenne won a victory over the allied forces of the Prince of Condé and the Spanish besieging Arras. This became the turning point, after which the French was in the advantage. (Wikipedia)

The following is about correspondence between Turenne and Mazarin in this year.

Il arrive tout presentement un garde de M. de Turenne, qui m'a rendu la lettre cy-joincte. Je vous l'envoie, afin que vous preniez la peine de la faire veoir a la Reyne, apres qu'elle aura este deschiffree par Luga qui a le chiffre.
Mazarin to Le Tellier, Mouron, 6 July 1654, Lettres, vi, p.207
le feuillet cy-joinct, lequel le sr Brachet peut deschiffrer, estant escrit de son chiffre, n'ayant pas le vostre icy.
Mazarin to Turenne, Vincennes, 10 September 1654, Lettres, vi, p.319

Mazarin's Ciphers

In 1651, Mazarin went into exile in Germany because of the Second Fronde. His letters in cipher from this period are available online.

With Colbert (Le Tellier-Colbert Cipher 2) (1651)

BnF Baluze 332 (Gallica) (f.105-f.203) contains many letters partly or almost entirely in cipher from Mazarin to Colbert from Brühl (near Cologne), Huy, or Dinant (May to November 1651). Some (f.170, 176, 186, 189) are addressed to "M. de Ligny" (considered to be a pseudonym of Colbert). One (f.178) has an addressee in cipher (again, Colbert is meant). These specimens show enciphering was done by a secretary.

The cipher in use is what I call "Le Tellier-Colbert Cipher 2", a two-part code apparently introduced in December 1650 (see another article).

Mazarin-Anne d'Autriche Cipher (1651)

Bnf Baluze 329 (Gallica) contains many letters of Mazarin to mainly Anne d'Autriche (at least f.58-f.187) (only copies (Dulong p.66)). Unlike his correspondence with Colbert, these letters use cipher only modestly, probably in consideration for the Queen, who could handle cipher personally (Dulong p.64). The ciphertext is deciphered in italics in the edition printed in Ravenel (1836) (p.89, n.2), which allows reconstruction of the substitution cipher as follows (Ravenel p.xii-xiii does not mention codebreaking. Though the cipher is simple enough, the paucity of specimens must have posed some difficulty. Apparently, the manuscript key is extant somewhere, as mentioned in p.35, n.1.).

The nomenclature is reconstructed in Ravenal (1836), p.485 ff., in which names are represented by code words (e.g., "la Mer" for "Mazarin"), figures (e.g., 44 for "la Reine" (not in the list; found on p.99, 222); 44 with an accent (printed in bold; see p.xiii, n.2) for "Mazarin", 35 with an accent for "toute" (not in the list; found on f.132); 42 with an overbar for "Madame de Beauvais"); or graphic signs. (There seem to be variations. Regarding 23 (Condé), 26 (Mazarin (I have seen this deciphered as "Cardinal")), and 29 (Mercoeur), the footnotes on p.491 say "Le chiffre de Mazarin" has "le maréchal de Grammont", "Servien", "Madame de Chevreuse", respectively. "Le chiffre de Mazarin" refers to the manuscript key used by Mazarin (p.35, n.1).

This Mazarin-Anne d'Autriche Cipher has two special symbols, which are considered to represent feelings of the Queen for Mazarin and vice versa (Ravenel p.493; Dulong (1982) further discusses these symbols in connectioin with other more commonly used symbols for similar use).

Planned Change of Cipher

At one time, Mazarin suspected that Lionne was reading their correspondence by obtaining the key from Madame de Beauvais, and suggested replacing the cipher.

Pour ce qui est du chiffre, vous avez mal fait; et il peut arriver que 68~ [Lionne], ouvrant quelque lettre, entendra tout par le moyen de 42~ [Madame de Beauvais]. Il seroit bon que vous approuvassiez que je vous envoyasse un autre chiffre.
Mazarin to Anne d'Autriche, 22 June 1651 (Ravenel p.100; quoted in Dulong p.64)

But there seems to be no trace of such replacement at this time. (Mazarin's letter of 15 June 1651 uses 26 for "Mazarin", Gabriel for "La princesse Palatine" (p.88), which are also used in a letter of 26 December 1651 (p.461, 462).

(As far as printed in Ravenel, the figure codes first appear in the above letter of 15 June. Although figure codes were used as early as 27 May 1651 (Baluze 329, f.5, in which "68", "26", barred "62", "23", barred "42", "22" are not deciphered), historians' help is needed to see to whom it is addressed.)

Mix of Ciphers?

Mazarin appears to have also used symbols from another cipher, for which the Queen might get explanation from Bartet. (Bartet carried messages between Mazarin and the Queen (orrally after his Spanish passport expired) (Mémoires de Valentin Conrart (1825)).)

Si vous trouvez quelque nom dans ce billet que vous n'entendiez pas, il vous plaira d'en demander l'explication à l'Ami [Bartet (This is not a code symbol. In code, "l'Ami" stands for "Mazarin." Similarly, "L'ami de l'Esprit" on p.391 does not refer to Mazarin.)] de Gabriel [La princesse Palatine], lequel vous pourroit même remettre une copie de son chiffre, qui est très facile.
Mazarin to Anne d'Autriche, 20 July 1651 (Ravenel p.199)

A Court Cipher (1652)

Baluze himself collected code symbols under the title "Chifres de la cour en 1652" (f.2-3). It seems to be different from the Mazarin-Anne d'Autriche Cipher above.



Mazarin sometimes mentions deciphering of intercepted despatches. Mazarin repeatedly mentioned that interleaving ciphertext with clear text made the task easier.

Il s'est rencontré heureusement que celles dont il estoit chargé n'ont pas esté fort difficiles a estre deschiffrez, par ce qu'il y avoit des mots entremeslez qui ont donné la cognoissance du reste, avec celle que j'ay eu de la matiere dont ils pouvoient parler, et j'en ay trouvé moy-mesme la plus grande partie.
Parmy les lettres que je vous adresse, il y en a une originale de don Louis de Haro à Castel-Rodrigo, où il y a un endroit qui n'a pu estre deschiffré, n'estant pas du chiffre des autres. Mazarin to Conde, [Amiens], 22 July 1647, Lettres, ii, p.461, 463

Je vous envoie la copie des dictes lettres interceptées pour les lire à S.A.R., .... Comme nous sçavons bien les matieres et qu'il y avoit beaucoup de paroles entremeslées, il nous a esté facile de deschiffrer ce qu'il y avoit en chiffre. S.A.R. remarquera bien que la lettre principale, escrite de Bourdeaux, est de M. de Bouillon.
Mazarin to Le Tellier, Courtras, 31 July 1650, Lettres, iii, p.649

Je vous adresse aussy la copie que les habitants de Bayonne nous ont envoyée d'une lettre qu'ils ont interceptée du sr Laisne (Lenet) au baron de Batteville. Elle estoit en chiffres; mais, comme il y avoit beaucoup de mots entremeslez, on a trouvé assez facilement le moyen de la deschiffrer.
Mazarin to Le Tellier, Libourne, 8 August 1650, Lettres, iii, p.671

Il nous est encore tombé en main le plus heureusement du monde une depesche en chiffres du sr de Mazerolles à M. de Bouillon, par le moyen d'un gentilhomme anglois, que ledict Mazerolles en avoit chargé à St Sebastien.... Comme le chiffre est aysé, et que, dans la premiere lettre, qui fut interceptée, il y a quelque temps, ils avoient laissé plusieurs paroles entremeslées qui faisoient congnoistre le sens des autres, nous trouvasmes la clef, et nous en sommes servis fort à propos en ce rencontre. Je vous envoie le billet original et le deschiffrement qui ne nous a pas mis dans une mediocre inquietude pour l'arrivée de nostre armement de la Rochelle.
Mazarin to Le Tellier, [Bourg], 29 August 1650, Lettres, iii, p.763

(Louis du Pas de Mazerolles was made maréchal de camp in 1648.)

Sometimes, content of ciphertext had to be guessed.

Ça esté un grand bonheur d'avoir veu, dans les lettres interceptées, la plus grande partie de leurs sentiments. J'estime que les lignes qu'on a peu deschiffrer contiennent la veritable fin qu'ils ont eue en cette introduction de negociation, ....
Il se peut faire aussy que ces paroles en chiffres fussent pour advertir Mme de Longueville que le premier point qu'on mettroit sur le tapis, dans les entrevues, seroit la demande de la liberte de princes.
Mazarin to Le Tellier, Bourg, 28 September 1650, Lettres, iii, p.821

The following is a note when Mazarin shared an intercept with Le Tellier. (Don Luis de Haro (Wikipedia) was an adviser to the Spanish king. Bouillon (Wikipedia) was Turenne's elder brother. De la Force (britishmuseum) was created Duke in 1637.)

Je vous prie de me renvoyer, par personne bien asseurée, les depesche interceptées d'Espagne, quand vous n'en aurez plus besoin, et le papier du sieur Laisne (Lenet). J'ay retenu la lettre de don Louis de Haro au maréschal de Turenne, pour m'en servir avec le maréschal de la Force, dont il est faict mention, sans mesme qu'il y ayt rien en chiffre, comme d'une personne qui entre dans le parti et pour lequel M. de Bouillon a donné toute asseurance aux Espagnols.
Mazarin to Le Tellier, Libourne, 25 August 1650, Lettres, iii, p.744

At one time, when he had deciphered a letter apparently written by Colbert not intended for him, he found disparaging remarks on him. (Since it was addressed to "mine", the deciphering was not codebreaking.)

(During the Fronde, popular songs accusing the minister, called Mazarinades, appeared in dozens (Wikipedia).)

Outre ce que je voy qui suffit pour me rendre bien triste, je suis plongé dans une profonde melancholie, ayant ouvert par hazard une lettre escrite à un des miens, laquelle je croyois qui s'adressoit à moy et quoyque je ne puis (sic) pas douter que ce ne soit de Colbert, puisqu'encore qu'elle soit en chiffres, le commencement et la fin sont escrits de sa main, l'ayant fait deschiffrer j'ay trouvé qu'elle parle de moy en termes fort injurieux et dans le style que j'ay sceu, mais hors de temps, que M. Le Tellier, qui est la principale cause de mon malheurs, a fait depuis un an;
Mazarin to Lionne [secretary to the queen regent], Espanse ou Espense pres de Bar, 7 March 1651, Lettres, iv, p.55

Sharing Information

The following is an instance where Mazarin forwarded a decipherment of a letter sent by Monsignor Bengivoglio, papal nuncio in Florence, to his brother in Paris.

Je vous envoie le papier ci-joinct, qui est le deschiffrement d'une lettre que Monsignor Bentivoglio, nonce a Florence, a escrite a son frere l'abbe, qui est a Paris.
Mazarin to Le Tellier, [Chateaux Thierry], 3 December 1650, Lettres, iii, p.920

The following is an instance where Colbert showed Mazarin the content of a letter in cipher from Le Tellier. (The word chiffre can mean a letter in cipher.)

Tout presentement aussy le sr Colbert me fait voir ce qui est contenu en vostre chiffre du 19, et que vous tesmoignez d'estre du mesme advis.
Mazarin to Le Tellier, [Reims], 22 December 1650, Lettres, iii, p.960

Time for Deciphering

Sometimes, Mazarin did not have time to have a letter deciphered, as he said in his letter to d'Avaux in a letter of 20 August 1646 (Lettres, ii, p.798).

Sometimes, Mazarin did not have time to encipher his letter.

je n'ay pas le temps de luy escrire au long en chiffre
Mazarin to Abbe Fouquet, [Bruhl], 16 May 1651, Lettres, iv, p.185

Sometimes, Mazarin supposed the recipient did not have time to decipher his letter.

Je juge que, lorsque vous m'avez escrit cette derniere depesche, vous n'aviez pas encore faict deschiffrer la mienne qui parloit du cardinal de Retz
Mazarin to Le Tellier, Bouillon, 14 September 1652, Lettres, v, p.239

Sometimes, it is not clear whether "deciphering" involves codebreaking or routine work. The following seems to be the latter (in view of "response"), but the word "travailler" makes one wonder whether it is harder than routine work.

Voicy vostre neveu qui arrive. Je fais travailler a deschiffrer ce qu'il a apporte; sur quoy je vous feray response, ne voulant pas retarder ce courrier qui porte la nouvelle de ce qui s'est passe sur la Loire.
Mazarin to Le Tellier, Chasteauregnard, 16 January 1652, Lettres, v, p.15

Sometimes, when in travel, Mazarin had to forward a letter back to court for deciphering. (By the way, in this letter, "40" is conjectured to be the Duchesse of Chevreuse and "32", the Queen.)

Je reponds tard à vostre lettre du 27; car il m'a fallu l'envoyer à Corbeil puor la deschiffrer
Mazarin to l'Abbe Fouquet, Mesnil-Foravel, 29 May 1652, Lettres, v, p.115

Lack of Cipher

Sometimes, correspondents could not write what they want because of lack of a cipher.

Je ne m'explique pas plus clairement, faute de chiffre;
Mazarin to M. de Montade, 19 July 1648, Lettres, iii, p.1043

comme je n'ay pas de chiffre avec luy [l'evesque de Constance], je luy diray, par vostre moyen, que je ne croy pas que le cardinal Anthoine s'en aille à Rome,
Mazarin to Millet, Bruhl, 5 September 1651, Lettres, iv, p.416

Je vous donne part de tout, et par vostre moyen à M. le mareschal de Grancey, auquel j'escris seulement un petit mot, me remettant à ce que vous luy direz, n'ayant pas de chiffre avec luy [marechal de Grancey]
Mazarin to D'Estrades, Bruhl, 8 October 1651, Lettres, iv, p.462

In a letter from Mazarin to Comte de Brienne, Guise, 30 July 1655, Mazarin said he could not reply immediately because they did not bring the cipher that allows reading them. (Lettres, vii, p.23)

Instructions to Use Cipher

Sometimes, use of cipher is explicitly requested.

Je vous prie de le mander en chiffre à M. d'Estrades
Mazarin to Marechal D'Aumont, Saint-Germain-en-Laye, Lettres, v, 3 May 1652, p.102


M.A. Chéruel, Vte G. D'Avenel (ed.) (1872-1906), Lettres du cardinal Mazarin pendant son ministere, tome i (1642-1644), tome ii (1644-1647), tome iii (1648-1650), tome iv (1651), tome v (1652-1653), tome vi (1653-1655), tome vii (1655-1657), tome viii (juillet 1657-aout 1658), tome ix (1658-1661)

Ravenel (ed.) (1836), Lettres du Cardinal Mazarin à la reine, à la princesse Palatine, etc. (Google) *This prints a cipher between Mazarin and the Queen on p.485 ff., which seems to be a simple nomenclature.

Claude Dulong (1982), "Les signes cryptiques dans la correspondance d'Anne d'Autricheavec Mazarin, contribution a l'emblematique du XVIIe siecle", Bibliotheque de l'ecole deschartes (Persée, JSTOR)

James Breck Perkins (1886), France Under Mazarin: With a Review of the Administration of Richelieu, vol.2

See also my related articles:

S.Tomokiyo, French ciphers during the Reign of Louis XIII

S.Tomokiyo, French Ciphers at the time of the Fronde

S.Tomokiyo, Ciphers Early in the Reign of Louis XIV

S.Tomokiyo, French Ciphers during the Reign of Louis XIV

©2021 S.Tomokiyo
First posted on 20 March 2021. Last modified on 6 June 2021.
Articles on Historical Cryptography
inserted by FC2 system