Cryptologia Articles in Chronological Order of Subjects

Cryptologia articles of issues from 1997 are listed below in chronological order of subjects. The list, originally made for my personal reference, is far from exhaustive and the selection is biased. The papers before 1997 will be covered some time. For the most part, the listing was made by solely looking at the titles. On a few cases, the minimum context has been supplied in brackets [ ] from the abstract.

Full listing is available at the above official site, dblp, etc.

To find more about a specific article listed herein, it is recommended to enter the title on a search engine such as Google.

Table of Contents:

Before 20th Century

20th Century before World War II

Cipher Machines

Enigma and World War II



Before 20th Century

Ancient and Middle Ages

The Myth of the Skytale (Thomas Kelley, 1998)

Ninth-Century Figural Poetry and Medieval Easter Tables-Possible Inspirations for the Square Tables of Trithemius and Vigenère? (Gerhard F. Strasser, 2009)

Atbah-Type Ciphers in the Christian Orient and Numerical Rules in the Construction of Christian Substitution Ciphers (Maria Fronczak, 2013)

Why Don't We Decipher an Outdated Cipher System? The Codex of Rohonc (Benedek Láng, 2010)

Arabic Cryptology

Review of Series on Arabic Origins of Cryptology (James L. Massey, 2008)

Charting Arabic Cryptology's Evolution (Kathryn A. Schwartz, 2009)

Instances of Arabic Cryptography in Morocco (Abdelmalek Azizi & Mostafa Azizi, 2010)

Instances of Arabic Cryptography in Morocco II (Abdelmalek Azizi & Mostafa Azizi, 2013)

From Text to Technological Context: Medieval Arabic Cryptology's Relation to Paper, Numbers, and the Post (Kathryn A. Schwartz, 2014)

Voynich Manuscript

The Distribution of Signs c and o in the Voynich Manuscript: Evidence for a Real Language? (Jacques B. M. Guy, 1997)

A Note on the Voynich Manuscript (Robert L. Williams, 1999)

Evidence of Linguistic Structure in the Voynich Manuscript Using Spectral Analysis (Gabriel Landini, 2001)

An Elegant Hoax? A Possible Solution to the Voynich Manuscript (Gordon Rugg, 2004)

The Voynich Manuscript: Evidence of the Hoax Hypothesis (Andreas Schinner, 2007)

A Milestone in Voynich Manuscript Research: Voynich 100 Conference in Monte Porzio Catone, Italy (Klaus Schmeh, 2013)

Hoaxing statistical features of the Voynich Manuscript (Gordon Rugg & Gavin Taylor, 2017)

15-16th Century

Cicco Simonetta's Cipher-Breaking Rules (Augusto Buonafalce, 2008)

Solved: The Ciphers in Book III of Trithemius's Steganographia (Jim Reeds, 1998)

The Numerical-Astrological Ciphers in the Third Book of Trithemius's Steganographia (Thomas Ernst, 1998)

Breakthrough in Renaissance Cryptography [book review] (Jim Reeds, 1999)

Bellaso's Reciprocal Ciphers (Augusto Buonafalce, 2006)

Samuel Zimmermann's Gehaimnussen: The earliest cryptological book in German (Gerhard F. Strasser, 2016) [1579]

Reading Encrypted Diplomatic Correspondence: An Undergraduate Research Project (Jeffrey D. Adler, Ryan W. Fuoss , Michael J. Levin & Amanda R. Youell, 2008) [cryptanalysis of 16th-century Spanish diplomatic correspondence by undergraduates who did not know Spanish]

François Viète, Father of Modern Cryptanalysis - Two New Manuscripts (Peter Pesic, 1997)

Shame, Love, and Alcohol: Private Ciphers in Early Modern Hungary (Benedek Láng, 2015) [private use of 16th to 17th century Hungarian ciphers]

17th Century

The Shakespeare-Bacon Controversy Continues on the Stage (Louis Kruh, 2003)

The Clue to the Labyrinth: Francis Bacon and the Decryption of Nature (Peter Pesic [doctorate], 2000)

Claude Comiers: the First Arithmetical Cryptography (Joachim von zur Gathen, 2003) [Vigenere cipher described in 1690 as addition of a key to the plaintext modulo the alphabet size]

Sir Samuel Morland's Machina Cyclologica Cryptographica (Augusto Buonafalce, 2004)

Leibniz's Machina Deciphratoria: A Seventeenth-Century Proto-Enigma (Nicholas Rescher, 2014)

The Man in the Iron Mask - Encore et enfin, Cryptologically (David Kahn, 2004)

18th Century

Cipher against Ciphers: Jonathan Swift's Latino-Anglicus Satire of Medicine (Paul W. Child, 2011) [an English plaintext is encrypted in a "Latin" ciphertext]

A Nomencaltor Used by Propaganda Fide during the Chinese Rites Controversy (Francesco Fabris & Myron Curtis, 2003) [典礼論争, "early 18th century"]

Late 18th-Century French Encrypted Diplomatic "Letters of Recommendation"-Or, How to Unwittingly Carry Your Own Warrant (Gerhard F. Strasser, 2012)

"I Shall Love You Until Death" (Marie-Antoinette to Axel von Fersen) (Jacques Patarin & Valérie Nachef, 2010)

Johann Friedrich Euler (1741-1800): Mathematician and Cryptologist at the Court of the Dutch Stadholder William V (Karl de Leeuw, 2001)

The black chamber in the Dutch republic and the seven years' war, 1751-63 (Karl de Leeuw, 1999)

A Turning Grille from the Ancestral Castle of the Dutch Stadtholders (Karl de Leeuw & Hans van der Meer, 1995)

A Homophonic Substitution in the Archives of the Last Great Pensionary of Holland (Karl de Leeuw & Hans van der Meer, 1993)

Friederich Johann Buck: Arithmetic Puzzles in Cryptography (Joachim von zur Gathen, 2004) [an 18th century work on numerical encoding]

On the cryptography of James Leander Cathcart (1767-1843) (Roberto Narváez, 2016)

19th Century

How I Broke an Encrypted Diary from the War of 1812 (Kent D. Boklan, 2008)

How I Broke the Confederate Code (137 Years Too Late) (Kent D. Boklan, 2006)

How We Broke the Union Code (148 Years Too Late) (Ali Assarpour & Kent D. Boklan, 2010)

How I Decrypted a Confederate Diary-And the Question of the Race of Mrs. Jefferson Davis (Kent D. Boklan, 2014)

How I deciphered a Robert E. Lee letter-and a note on the power of context in short polyalphabetic ciphers (Kent D. Boklan, 2016)

Some Diplomatic Ciphers of the First Mexican Federal Republic (1824-1830) (Roberto Narváez, 2015)

The Papal Cipher Section in the Early Nineteenth Century (David Alvarez, 1993)

Faded Lustre: Vatican Cryptography, 1815-1920 (David Alvarez, 1996)

A Dutch Enciphered Code (David Alvarez, 1995) [Dutch diplomatic code with superencipherment which combined transposition and substitution (1880s-1930s)]

The Ciphered Autobiography of a 19th Century Egyptologist (Emanuele Viterbo, 1998)

Students Better than a Pro (Bazeries) and an Author (Candela) (David Kahn, 1999)

The Memoria Technica Cipher (Francine F. Abeles, 2003) [Lewis Carroll's cipher]

The last poem of Pietro Giannone-finally decrypted (Paolo Bonavoglia & Consolato Pellegrino, 2016)

Still Waiting to be Solved: Elgar's 1897 Cipher Message (Louis Kruh, 1998)

Alexis Køhl: A Danish Inventor of Cryptosystems (Niels Faurholt, 2006)

Key Enclosed: Examining the Evidence for the Missing Key Letter of the Beale Cipher (Wayne S. Chan, 2008)

Cryptanalysis of Beale Cipher Number Two (Todd D. Mateer, 2013)

Treaty of Cryptography by Joaquin Garcia Carmona? (José Ramón Soler Fuensanta, 2009) [the true identity of Carmona is revealed]

The Telegraph, Espionage, and Cryptology in Nineteenth Century Iran (Michale Rubin, 2001)

20th Century before World War II

Before World War I

A Papal Diplomatic Code (David Alvarez, 1992) [a small handwritten two-part code with the Lisbon nunciature]

World War I

Review of Inside Room 40: The Codebreakers of World War I by Paul Grannon (Chris Christensen, 2011)

The Zimmermann Telegram Revisited: A Reconciliation of the Primary Sources (Peter Freeman, 2006)

Zimmermann Telegram: The Original Draft (Joachim von zur Gathen, 2007)

Room 47: The Persian Prelude to the Zimmermann Telegram (Saul Kelly, 2013)

The Punitive Expedition Military Reform and Communications Intelligence (David A. Hatch, 2007) ["Pancho Villa"]

Cryptographic Methods During the Mexican Revolution (José de Jesús Angel Angel & Guillermo Morales-Luna, 2009)

Deciphering ADFGVX messages from the Eastern Front of World War I (George Lasry, Ingo Niebel, Nils Kopal & Arno Wacker, 2017)

An Accidental Cryptologist: The Brief Career of Genevieve Young Hitt (Betsy Rohaly Smoot, 2011) [wife of Parker Young Hitt]

Frank Miller: Inventor of the One-Time Pad (Steven M. Bellovin, 2011)

Germany's First Cryptanalysis on the Western Front: Decrypting British and French Naval Ciphers in World War I (Hilmar-Detlef Brückner, 2004)

A Hopeless Struggle: Austro-Hungarian Cryptology during World War I (John R. Shindler PhD, 2000)

Ludwig Föppl: A Bavarian cryptanalyst on the Western front (Martin Samuels, 2016)

Polish Codebreaking during the Russo-Polish War of 1919-1920 (Jan Bury, 2004)

Italian Diplomatic Cryptanalysis in World War I (David Alvarez, 1996)

From the Archives: Codetalkers Not Wanted (David Kahn, 2005)

Searching for Cryptology's Great Wreck (Jukka Rislakki, 2007) [Magdeburg incident]

From the archives Early Corporate Espionage amid World War I Censorship (Jonathan Winkler, 2001)

John F. Byrne's Chaocipher Revealed: An Historical and Technical Appraisal (Moshe Rubin, 2011) ["encryption invented by John F. Byrne in 1918"]

Chaocipher Exhibit 5: History, Analysis, and Solution of Cryptologia's 1990 Challenge (Jeff Calof, Jeff Hill & Moshe Rubin, 2014)

Cryptanalysis of Chaocipher and solution of Exhibit 6 (George Lasry, Moshe Rubin, Nils Kopal & Arno Wacker, 2016)

Interwar Period

1929-1931: A Transition Period in U.S. Cryptologic History (John F. Dooley, 2013)

Lester Hill Revisited (Chris Christensen, 2014)

Elizebeth Friedman's security and career concerns prior to World War II (G. Stuart Smith, 2017)

From the Archives: Friedman Takes the Stand (David A. Hatch, 2008)

Charles J. Mendelsohn and Why I Envy Him (David Kahn, 2004) [1880-1939]

The Road to German Diplomatic Ciphers - 1919 to 1945 (Michael van der Meulen, 1998)Another Herbert O. Yardley Mystery? (Louis Kruh, 1998)

Wilhelm Fenner and the Development of the German Cipher Bureau, 1922-1939 (David Alvarez, 2007)

The Institution of Modern Cryptology in the Netherlands and in the Netherlands East Indies, 1914-1935 (Karl de Leeuw, 2015)

From the Archives: Polish Interwar MFA's Cipher Compromised? (Jan Bury, 2007) [Polish diplomatic cipher]

Steps Toward Unraveling a Vatican Cipher of the 1930s (Franco P. Preparata, 2011) [substitution-type nomenclators related through an indicator]

The Strip Cipher-The Spanish Official Method (José Ramón Soler Fuensanta & Francisco Javier López-Brea Espiau, 2007) ["This was the official method of ciphering by all Spanish Ministries in the late 19th century, and the most commonly used method in the Spanish Civil War"]

A Cryptanalysis Service During the Spanish Civil War (J. Ramón Soler Fuensanta , Francisco Javier López-Brea Espiau & Diego Navarro Bonilla, 2012)

Genetic Algorithms and Mathematical Programming to Crack the Spanish Strip Cipher (Fco. Alberto Campos , Alberto Gascón , Jesús María Latorre & J. Ramón Soler, 2013) ["the official encryption method of the Spanish Civil War: the Strip Cipher"]

States by secrecy: Cryptography and guerrillas in the Spanish Civil War (José Ramón Soler Fuensanta & Vicente Guasch Portas, 2016)

Analyzing the Spanish strip cipher by combining combinatorial and statistical methods (Luis Alberto Benthin Sanguino, Gregor Leander, Christof Paar, Bernhard Esslinger & Ingo Niebel, 2016)

Herbert O. Yardley

An Unpublished Yardley Manuscript (Alexander Hagety, 1999)

Who Wrote The Blonde Countess? A Stylometric Analysis of Herbert O. Yardley's Fiction (John F. Dooley & Yvonne I. Ramirez, 2009)

Another Yardley Mystery (John F. Dooley, 2009) [examines whether Cryptograms and Their Solution in Saturday Evening Post was in fact written by Yardley]

Was Herbert O. Yardley a Traitor? (John F. Dooley, 2010) [examine evidence regarding a claim in Ladislas Farago's book (1967) that "Herbert Yardley betrayed his country by selling decrypted Japanese diplomatic messages and the techniques used in their solution to agents of the Japanese Foreign Ministry for $7,000"]

Russian Cryptology

Tsarist Codebreaking Some Background and Some Examples (David Schimmelpenninck van der Oye, 1998)

Russian and Soviet Cryptology I - Some Communications Intelligence in Tsarist Russia (Thomas R. Hammant, 2000)

Russian and Soviet Cryptology II - The Magdeburg Incident: The Russian View (Thomas R. Hammant, 2001)

Russian and Soviet Cryptology III - Soviet COMINT and the Civil War, 1918-1921 (Thomas R. Hammant, 2001)

Russian and Soviet Cryptology IV - Some Incidents in the 1930's (Thomas R. Hammant, 2001)

Soviet Secrets in the Ether - Clandestine Radio Stations at the New York and San Francisco Consulates in World War II (James David, 2003)

Cipher Machines

For Enigma, see the next section.

An Error in the History of Rotor Encryption Devices (Friedrich L. Bauer, 1999)

Cypher Machines Maintenance and Restoration Spanning Sixty Years (Dorothy Clarkson, 2003)


Parker Hitt's First Cylinder Device and the Genesis of U.S. Army Cylinder and Strip Devices (Betsy Rohaly Smoot, 2015)

Key Space and Period of Fialka M-125 Cipher Machine (Eugen Antal & Pavol Zajac, 2015)

SIGABA: Cryptanalysis of the Full Keyspace (Mark Stamp & Wing On Chan, 2007)

The SIGCUM Story: Cryptographic Failure, Cryptologic Success (Stephen J. Kelly, 1997)

Two Hebern Cryptographic Machines (Peter Zilahy Ingerman, 2005)


Cryptanalysis of Typex (Kelly Chang , Richard M. Low & Mark Stamp, 2014)

Whittingham-Collingwood Cipher Machine (John Alexander , Kevin Coleman , David White , Nick Miers & John Gallehawk) ["possibly-1920s"]

Report on Speech Secrecy System DELILAH, a Technical Description Compiled by A. M. Turing and Lieutenant D. Bayley REME, 1945-1946 (Alan M. Turing & D. Bayley, 2012)

Hagelin, Swedish

Cryptanalysis of the Hagelin C-52 and Similar Machines A Known Plaintext Attack (H. Paul Greenough, 1999)

Cryptanalysis of Hagelin Machine Pin Wheels (Geoff Sullivan, 2002)

Automated Known-Plaintext Cryptanalysis of Short Hagelin M-209 Messages (George Lasry, Nils Kopal & Arno Wacker, 2016)

Ciphertext-only cryptanalysis of Hagelin M-209 pins and lugs (George Lasry, Nils Kopal & Arno Wacker, 2016)

Swedish SA Teleprinter Cipher System (Urban Zetterström, 2004)


The Dutch Invention of the Rotor Machine, 1915-1923 (Karl de Leeuw, 2003)

J. F. W. Nuboer and the Reintroduction of Machine Cryptography by the Royal Netherlands Navy, 1915-1940 (Karl de Leeuw, 2015)


Konrad Zuse's Proposal for a Cipher Machine (Raul Rojas, 2014) [1939-1940]

Urkryptografen ("The Clock Cryptograph") (Niels Faurholt, 2003)

Unknown German World War II Cipher Device (Louis Kruh, 2004)

Unknown Military Coding Device Can You Identify it? (Louis Kruh, 2005)

Note on Geheimschreiber Cam Wheels (Deane R. Blackman, 2006)

E.S.Schieber German Code Device from WWII (Niels Faurholt, 2009)


Mechanical Cipher Systems in the Spanish Civil War (José Ramón Soler Fuensanta, 2004)


TELMA-A Polish Wireless Communications Security Machine of World War II (Jan Bury, 2006)


The East German Encryption Machine T-310 and the Algorithm It Used (Klaus Schmeh, 2006)


The Scheuble Apparatus (Herbert Paulis, 2007) [Austrian codebreaking device for simple Italian messages during WWI]

A German machine for differencing and testing additives (John Alexander, John Gallehawk, John Jackson, Allen Pearce & Edward Simpson, 2017)

Enigma and World War II


book review: Enigma Articles from Cryptologia by Winkel, Brian J., Cipher A. Deavours, David Kahn, and Louis Kruh (Louis Kruh, 2005)

Enigma Variations: An Extended Family of Machines (David H. Hamer, Geoff Sullivan & Frode Weierud, 1998)

Enigma-Uhr (Heinz Ulbricht, 1999)

The First Naval Enigma Decrypts of World War II (Ralph Erskine, 1997)

Letter to the Editors M2114: A Naval Enigma (David Hamer, 1998)

Enigma: Actions Involved in the 'Double Stepping' of the Middle Rotor (David H. Hamer, 1997)

Lobsters, Crabs, and the Abwehr Enigma (C.A. Deavours, 1997)

Applying Statistical Language Recognition Techniques in the Ciphertext-only Cryptanalysis of Enigma (Heidi Williams, 2000)

G-312: An Abwehr Enigma (David H. Hamer, 2000)

The Glow-lamp Ciphering and Deciphering Machine: Enigma [from the archives] (2001)

Recovering the Wiring of Enigma's Umkehrwalze A (Philip Marks & Frode Weierud, 2000)

Umkehrwalze D: Enigma's Rewirable Reflector - Part I (Philip Marks, 2001)

Umkehrwalze D: Enigma's Rewirable Reflector - Part II (Philip Marks, 2001)

Umkehrwalze D: Enigma's Rewirable Reflector - Part III (Philip Marks, 2001)

The Commercial Enigma: Beginnings of Machine Cryptography (Louis Kruh & Cipher Deavours, 2002)

Expert's Opinion on the Enigma Ciphering Machine (H. Koot, 2002)

The Enigmas - and Other Recovered Artefacts - of U-85 (David H. Hamer, 2003)

How Statistics Led the Germans to Believe Enigma Secure and Why They Were Wrong: Neglecting the Practical Mathematics of Cipher Machines (R. A. Ratcliff, 2003)

Pocket Enigma: the Review (Stuart Savory, 2004)

Model Z: A Numbers-Only Enigma Version (Arturo Quirantes, 2004)

The Paper Enigma Machine (Mike Koss, 2004)

Naval Enigma: Seahorse and Other Kriegsmarine Cipher Blunders (Ralph Erskine & Philip Marks, 2004)

The Polish Enigma Conference and Some Excursiong (David Kahn, 2005)

Bulldozer: A Cribless Rapid Analytical Machine (RAM) Solution to Enigma and its Variations (Lee A. Gladwin, 2007)

Dilly Knox-A Reminiscence of this Pioneer Enigma Cryptanalyst (Mavis Batey, 2008)

Captured Kriegsmarine Enigma Documents at Bletchley Park (Ralph Erskine, 2008)

Enigma's Contemporary Witness: Gisbert Hasenjaeger (Klaus Schmeh, 2009)

Spanish Enigma: A History of the Enigma in Spain (José Ramón Soler Fuensanta, Francisco Javier López-Brea Espiau & Frode Weierud, 2010)

Enigma Message Procedures Used by the Heer, Luftwaffe and Kriegsmarine (Dirk Rijmenants, 2010)

An Enigma Replica and its Blueprints (Wolfgang Ertel , Lucia Jans , Walter Herzhauser & Joachim Fessler, 2010)

Summary Report of the State of the Soviet Military Sigint in November 1942 Noticing "ENIGMA" (Zdzislaw J. Kapera, 2011) [Russian solution of Enigma]

Enigma Wiring Data: Interpreting Allied Conventions from World War II (Philip Marks, 2015)

History and Modern Cryptanalysis of Enigma's Pluggable Reflector (Olaf Ostwald & Frode Weierud, 2016)

Human factors and missed solutions to Enigma design weaknesses (Harold Thimbleby, 2016)

Enigma Z30 retrieved (Anders Wik, 2016)

Modern breaking of Enigma ciphertexts (Olaf Ostwald & Frode Weierud, 2017)

Rejewski, Bombe, and Polish Activities

The Bombe A Remarkable Logic Machine (Donald W. Davies, 1999)

Britain Reveals its Bombe to America [from the archives] (2002)

Alan M. Turing's Critique of Running Short Cribs on the US Navy Bombe (Lee A. Gladwin, 2003)

The Versatility of Rejewski's Method: Solving for the Wiring of the Second Rotor (John Lawrence, 2004)

A Study of Rejewski's Equations (John Lawrence, 2005)

Factoring for the Plugboard - Was Rejewski's Proposed Solution for Breaking the Enigma Feasible? (John Lawrence, 2005)

Third Person Singular (Warsaw, 1939) (John Gallehawk, 2006)

The Poles Reveal their Secrets: Alastair Denniston's Account of the July 1939 Meeting at Pyry (Ralph Erskine, 2006)

Rejewski's Catalog (Alex Kuhl, 2007) ["catalog of disjoint cycles of permutations generated by Enigma indicators"]

Monument in Memoriam of Marian Rejewski, Jerzy Rózycki and Henryk Zygalski Unveiled in Poznań (Marek Grajek, 2008)

From the Archives: The Last Bombe Run, 1955 (Colin Burke, 2008)

Resurrecting Bomba Kryptologiczna: Archaeology of Algorithmic Artefacts, I (David Link, 2009)

From the Archives: A Lady Codebreaker Speaks: Joan Murray, the Bombes and the Perils of Writing Crypto-History From Participants' Accounts (Colin Burke, 2010)

Rejewski's Test Message as a Crib (John Wright, 2016)

Mr. Twinn's bombes (Philip Marks, 2018)

Recovering the military Enigma using permutations-filling in the details of Rejewski's solution (Manuel Vázquez & Paz Jiménez-Seral, 2018)

Bletchley Park, Turing

What Did the Sinkov Mission Receive from Bletchley Park? (Ralph Erskine, 2000)

From the Archives What the Sinkov Mission Brought to Bletchley Park (Ralph Erskine, 2003)

The 1942 Reorganization of the Government Code and Cypher School (Christopher Grey & Andrew Sturdy, 2008)

A Cryptology Course at Bletchley Park (Robert Lewand, 2007)

Keith Batey and John Herivel: Two Distinguished Bletchley Park Cryptographers (Frank Carter, 2011)

Commentary on Alan M. Turing: The Applications of Probability to Cryptography (Sandy Zabell, 2012)

From the Archives: Colonel Butler's Satire of Bletchley Park (Christopher Grey, 2014)

A recursive solution for Turing's H-M factor (John Wright, 2016)

The Turing Bombe Victory and the first naval Enigma decrypts (John Wright, 2017)

Alan Turing's First Cryptology Textbook and Sinkov's Revision of it (Chris Christensen, 2009)

BRUSA Agreement, Ultra

The BRUSA Agreement of May 17, 1943 (John Cary Sims, 1997)

The 1944 Naval BRUSA Agreement and its Aftermath (Ralph Erskine, 2006)

A Gracious but Tragic Special Ultra Message (Colin Burke, 1998)

Secret Keeping 101-Dr. Janice Martin Benario and the Women's College Connection to ULTRA (Robert Edward Lewand, 2010)

Codebreaking against Other German Codes/Ciphers

The American Solution of a German One-Time-Pad Cryptographic System (G-OTP) (Cecil Phillips, 2000)

Breaking the German Weather Ciphers in the Mediterranean Detachment G, 849th Signal Intelligence Service (Paul N. Pfeiffer, 1998)

The Use of Decrypted German Weather Reports in the Operations of the Fifteenth Air Force over Europe (David M. Smith, 1999)

Kriegsmarine Short Signal Systems - And How Bletchley Park Exploited Them (Ralph Erskine, 1999)

Colossus and the Breaking of the Wartime "Fish" Codes (Donald Machie, 2002)

A Colossal Fish (Franz-Peter Heider, 1998)

Breaking German Army Ciphers (Geoff Sullivan & Frode Weierud, 2005)

American Dragon (Jim Reeds, 2010) [machinery to "help solve the German Tunny cipher"]

US: Miscellaneous

Codebreaking with IBM Machines in World War II (Stephen Budiansky, 2001)

US Navy Cryptologic Mathematicians during World War II (Chris Christensen, 2011)

How Op-20-G Got Rid of Joe Rochefort (Frederick D. Parker, 2000)

Station AL-Guadalcanal: A Full Service WWII Cryptologic Unit (Philip H. Jacobsen, 2007) ["Isoroku Yamamoto"]

The Navajo Code Talkers: A Cryptologic and Linguistic Perspective (Stephen Huffman, 2000)

Codetalkers Recognition Not Just the Navajos [US Congress] (2002)

The Diplomacy of Security: behing the Negotiations of Article 18 of the Sino-American Cooperative Agreement (Lee A. Gladwin, 2010) [1943]

German: Miscellaneous

Wireless and "Geheimschreiber" Operator in the War, 1941-1945 (Georg Glünder & Paul Whitaker, 2002)

German Wireless Intercept Organization [from the Archives] (1997)

Bundeswehrtarnverfahren (Michael van der Meulen, 1997)

Ultra Reveals a Late B-Dienst Success in the Atlantic (Ralph Erskine, 2010) [German success in solving British "Merchant Ships' Code (Mersigs II)" in 1943]

From the Archives: Codebreaking (or not) in Shanghai (Colin Burke, 2007) ["failure of German codebreaking activies in occupied China"]

Rasterschlüssel 44 - the Epitome of Hand Field Ciphers (Michael J. Cowan, 2004) [1944]


Revealing Secrets in Two Wars: The Spanish Codebreakers at PC Bruno and PC Cadix (José Ramón Soler Fuensanta , Francisco Javier López-Brea Espiau & Diego Navarro Bonilla, 2013)

How I Discovered World War II's Greatest Spy (David Kahn, 2009)

The Russian Fish with Caviar (Randy Rezabek, 2014) [capture of the "Russian Fish" from the Germans in the 1945 TICOM operation]


The Sino-Japanese War of 1894-1895: Partially decrypted (Gregory J. Nedved, 2018)

Review of Deciphering the Rising Sun: Navy and Marine Corps Codebreakers, Translators, and Interpreters in the Pacific War by Roger Dingman (Emil H. Levine, 2010)

Review of U.S. Navy Codebreakers, Linguists, and Intelligence Officers against Japan, 1910-1941 by Steven E. Maffeo (Chris Christensen, 2016)

Did Sigint Seal The Fates of 19,000 POWs? (Lee A. Gladwin, 2006)

From the archives: Japanese Fears and the Ironies of Interception (Craig McKay, 2000)

Naval Codes

Breaking of Japanese Naval Codes: Pre-Pearl Harbor to Midway (Forrest R. Biard, 2006)

Solving Japanese Naval Ciphers 1943-45 (Norman Scott, 1997)

The Flaw in the JN25 Series of Ciphers (Peter Donovan, 2004)

The Flaw in the JN-25 Series of Ciphers, II (Peter Donovan, 2012)

The National Cash Register Company Additive Recovery Machine (Chris Christensen, 2014) [an additive recovery machine to attack JN-25]

The Story of Mamba: Aligning Messages Against Recovered Additives (Chris Christensen & Jared Antrobus, 2015) [JN-25 and JN-11]

The Indicators of Japanese Ciphers 2468, 7890, and JN-25A1 (Peter W. Donovan, 2006)

Breaking "Tirpitz": Cryptanalysis of the Japanese-German joint naval cipher (Daniel J. Girard, 2016) ["specially-designed model T Enigma machine"]

Army Codes

The Breaking of the Japanese Army's Codes (Joseph E. Richard, 2004)


Purple Revealed: Simulation and Computer-aided Cryptanalysis of Angooki Taipu B (Wes Freeman , Geoff Sullivan & Frode Weierud, 2003)

Pearl Harbor

Foreknowledge of Pearl Harbor? No!: the Story of the U.S. Navy's Efforts on JN-25B (Philip H. Jacobsen, 2003)

Pearl Harbor: Radio Officer Leslie Grogan of the SS Lurline and His Misidentified Signals (Philip H. Jacobsen, 2005)

Radio Silence of the Pearl Harbor Strike Force Confirmed Again: The Saga of Secret Message Serial (SMS) Numbers (Philip H. Jacobsen, 2007)

Closing the Book on Pearl Harbor (Stephen Budiansky, 2000)


Setting the Record Straight on Midway (Graydon A. Lewis, 1998)



From the Archives: The U.S. and West German Agent Radio Ciphers (Jan Bury, 2007)["U.S. and West German intelligence services against Poland in the 1960s and early 1970s"]

The evolving relationship between mathematics and cryptology, 1951-1952: SCAG and the beginnings of SCAMP and NSASAB (Chris Christensen, 2017)

Cryptography during the French and American Wars in Vietnam (Phan Duong Hieu & Neal Koblitz, 2017)

Lambda: A Cold War Polish line encryptor and the networks it served (Jan Bury, 2017)

Polish Cold War Codebreaking of 1959-1989: A Preliminary Assessment (Jan Bury, 2012)

From the Archives: Inside a Cold War Crypto Cell. Polish Cipher Bureau in the 1980s (Jan Bury, 2008)

Breaking Littlewood's Cipher (Damien Stehlé, 2004) [1953]

From the Archives: CX-52 Messages Read by Red Poles? (Jan Bury, 2009) [the 1960s]

The Comedy of Commercial Encryption Software (Martin Kochanski, 2004) ["the late 1980s"]

Soviet VIC Cipher: No Respector of Kerckoff's Principles (Jozef Kollár, 2016) [classical cipher during the Cold War]


Kasiski's Test: Couldn't the Repetitions be by Accident? (Klaus Pommerening, 2006)

Elementary Cipher Solution (Navy Department, 1998)

Robust Dictionary Attack of Short Simple Substitution Ciphers (Edwin Olson, 2007)

Attacking Letter Substitution Ciphers with Integer Programming (Sujith Ravi & Kevin Knight, 2009)

Classic cryptanalysis using hidden Markov models (Rohit Vobbilisetty, Fabio Di Troia, Richard M. Low, Corrado Aaron Visaggio & Mark Stamp, 2017) [simple substitution ciphers]

Efficient Cryptanalysis of Homophonic Substitution Ciphers (Amrapali Dhavare , Richard M. Low & Mark Stamp, 2013)

Breaking Short Vigenère Ciphers (Tobias Schrödel, 2008)

Twisting the Keyword Length from a Vigenère Cipher (Thomas H. Barr & Andrew J. Simoson, 2015) [determining the length of a keyword in Vigenère-type ciphers]

A Parallel Genetic Algorithm for Cryptanalysis of the Polyalphabetic Substitution Cipher (Andrew Clark & Ed Dawson, 1997)

The Cycle Structure and Order of the Rail Fence Cipher (Robert Talbert, 2006)

Results of an Automated Attack on the Running Key Cipher (Craig Bauer & Elliott J. Gottloeb, 2005)

Solving the Running Key Cipher with the Viterbi Algorithm (Alexander Griffing, 2006)

Cracking Matrix Encryption Row by Row (Craig Bauer & Katherine Millward, 2007) ["Hill cipher"]

Cryptanalysis of an Extension of the Hill Cipher (Indivar Gupta, Jasbir Singh & Roopika Chaudhary, 2007)

Cracking Hill Ciphers with Goodness-of-Fit Statistics (Dae Hyun Yum & Pil Joong Lee, 2009)

Further improvements to the Bauer-Millward attack on the Hill cipher (Tom Leap, Tim McDevitt, Kayla Novak & Nicolette Siermine, 2016)

Automated Ciphertext-Only Cryptanalysis of the Bifid Cipher (António Machiavelo & Rogério Reis, 2007)

Breaking Short Playfair Ciphers with the Simulated Annealing Algorithm (Michael J. Cowan, 2008)

From the Archives: Breaking OTP Ciphers (Jan Bury, 2011) [one-time pad]

Solving the Double Transposition Challenge with a Divide-and-Conquer Approach (George Lasry , Nils Kopal & Arno Wacker, 2014) [hill climbing]

Cryptanalysis of columnar transposition cipher with long keys (George Lasry, Nils Kopal & Arno Wacker, 2016)


A Riverbank Trove (David Kahn, 2002)

Excellent, Exceptional, Enormous Crypto Source (Richard Pekelney, 2005) [NARA]

The David Kahn Collection at NSA's National Cryptologic Museum (David H. Hamer, 2011)

NSA Release and Transfer of Records Related to William F. Friedman (Betsy Rohaly Smoot, 2015)

The National Security Agency and the William F. Friedman Collection (David Sherman, 2017)

National Security Agency releases Army Security Agency histories covering 1945-1963 (Betsy Rohaly Smoot, 2017)


How Garbles Tickled History (David Kahn, 2005)

Codes and Ciphers in Fiction: an overview (John F. Dooley, 2005)

Reviews of Cryptologic Fiction (John F. Dooley, 2007, 2008, 2009, 2010)

A Tribute to David Kahn [in honor of his 80th birthday] (2009)

David, Calm Down! On Second and More Reflective Thought, Don't! (Brian Winkel, 2010) [relationship with David Kahn as co-founding editors of Cryptologia]

Encrypted Books: Mysteries that Fill Hundreds of Pages (Klaus Schmeh, 2015)

The Cryptology of Baseball (Wayne Patterson, 2011) [visual signals issued by the third base coach to batters and runners]

©2018 S.Tomokiyo
First posted on 23 February 2018. Last modified on 7 March 2018.
Articles on Historical Cryptography
inserted by FC2 system