Decoding Revolutionary Correspondence

April 16, 1782, from Robert R. Livingston to John Jay

Code/Cipher: WE007
Source: Papers of the Continental Congress, Roll 139, Page 136
Manuscript: PCC at Footnote.com; also Roll 105, Page 404
Jay Papers ID 9921; ID 11363 (a struck out manuscript page); ID 11820 (mostly before encoding); ID 90353 (decoded text)
Not printed in Wharton. (This letter is mentioned in a letter dated April 27, 1782, from Livingston to Jay.)

In Plaintext

Returning from an excursion to the state of New York, I found your letter of October, which, on account of my absence, had been committed to a Committee of Congress. They have shown me the Report. It will try their sentiments on a very interesting point, if it goes this. But, as they may not suddenly come to a resolution and I have just heard of a vessel which will sail in two hours for Cadiz, I avail myself of it to inform you that your conduct through the whole of your negotiation has been particularly acceptable to Congress.
The condition you have annexed to the proposed cession is growly[?] well calculated to hasten the Spainish minister and, I think, ought to be adhered to, for, unless some important advantage can be gained by the cession, the claim as we shall always have the means of enforcing is too valuable to be relinquished. Spain may flatter herself with the hopes of gaining that, at a general peace by the favor of the mediators, which she is unwilling to purchase of us by the smallest consession in this. However, I conceive she will find, when too late, that she has been led by a partial regard to trifling interests to sacarifice those of a more extensive and important nature.
Spain can have no claims to the Mississippi but what are derived from the conquests. Our claims are valid. Those of Britain are at least specious. Both will be opposed to hers at a general peace and, as she has made the cession of Gibralter a preliminary to a peace, she can hardly expect that the mediators, if they gratify her in that, will add other countries to which she has no claim.
More particulary, as the right of Britain is next to ours incontestably the best that can be set up, so that there is little doubt, if the negotiation should open when the success of our affair gives us importance in the eyes of the mediators, that they will recognize our right. If, on the other hand, we should meet with any reverse of fortune, the claims of Britain will become more respectable thereby and the weak claims which Spain may set up from the conquest of a few inconsiderable posts in a country of such immense extent, already in part conquered by us, only serve as argument of unbound ambition without establishing a right.
Sound policy, then, certainly dictates us a sure means of attaining this great: such a vigorous prosecution of the war as will reduce Great Britain to the necessity of making the mortifying cession which Spain requires and give more validity to the rights with which we are willing on certain conditions to invest her.
Pecuniary aids afforded to us will be the most effectual means of destroying the common enemy and reducing them to accept such terms as Spain may choose to dictate, while the purchase of our right will enable her to support them with dignity and enable her to appear at the congress as a sovereign power who has supported a distressed ally without availing herself of that distress to deprive of any rights which she has not paid them an equivalent for.
America considers her independence as placed beyond all doubt. She begins now to look forward to more important objects. She knows the value of the country which is washed by the Mississippi. It is also well known to the nations of Europe. By the cession of her right to it, she is satisfied that she can procure important advantage in commerce from any of the maritime powers in Europe.
Some of the northern potentates who have means of giving validity to our claims would consider an establishment under the restrictions with which we have offered it to Spain as cheaply by an alliance with us and a much greater advance in money than one has yet thought of asking from Spain, if our present want should make it expedient to persue this idea. Spain has not laid such obligation upon us notwithstanding our respectful and patient attention to her as to render us chargeable with the slightest degree of ingratitude.
In so doing, you will therefore persist, in the line in which you now are declaring explicitly, that the cessions you propose are only dictated by your desire to make early and vigorous efforts against the common enemy, that, if they are not accepted so soon and upon such terms as to afford you a prospect of obtaining this desireable end, you will not consider your offers as binding upon you. I am persuaded that in this I speak the sentiment of Congress and you may deliver them as such.
Your never having spoken of the answer of France, Spain, and Great Britain to the proposals of the mediators makes me doubt whether you have seen them. That of Spain I have seen. If I can get the other copied and ciphered before their vessel sails, I will send them to you. If not I enclose so much of the answer of France as relates to Spain. I see a use that may be made of it.
No incidents since my last have turned up with communicating, though enemy are drawing lines across New York Island at M. Elliots[?] and making every preparation for defence. The Eastern and Northern States and some of the southern states are using the most vigorous exertions to obtain a respectable face for the opening Campaign.
France has lent us six million of livres for this year. Of[?] dollars from Spain is all that is necessary to enable us to make the most spirited exertions.
Our army is at present well clad, and well fed and as well disciplined as any army in the world. The force at West Point, by the twentieth of May, will amount to about ten thousand men and will gradually increase till September as the recruits can be collected, so that our operating force there, including the French troops, will amount, by the beginning of June, to about fifteen or sixteen thousand men exclusive of militia, which may be called in if necessary. I mention this because I know great misrepresentations have gone abroad in this subject.
I have just received a letter from Mr. Carmichael, which, I shall answer if possible by the conveyance. Be pleased to present my complements to him, and the rest of your family. I am, Dear Sir,
with great esteem and regard
your most obedient, humble servant.
Regard Robert R. Livingston

Verification Dump

(Page 136)
Returning from an excursion to
the state of New York, I found your letter of October
which on account of my absence had been com-
mitted to a Committee of Congress. They have
shown me the Report. it will try their senti
ments on a very interesting point, if it goes
this but as they may not suddenly come to
a Resolution, and I have just heard of a
Vessel which will sail in two Hours for Cadiz
I avail myself of it to inform you, that your
Conduct thro' the whole of your Negotiation has
been particularly acceptable to Congress
332 <th> '355 <con>
419 <di[dy]> [ti]107 <on> 487 <you> 386 <have> '431 <an> 491 <n> 386 <have> ' 431 <an> 491 <n> 458 <e> 462 <x> 348 <ed>
456 <to[too]> 332 <th> '70 <pro> 260 <po> 162 <s> 348 <ed> 162 <s> 458 <e> 162 <s> 297 <si[sy]> 107 <on> 411 <i>
162 <s> 477 <gro[grow]> 122 <li[ly]> 109 <w> 388 <el> 104 <l> 591 <cal[call]> 240 <c> 80 <u> 81 <late> [d] 456 <to[too]> 343 <has> 544 <t>
216 <en> 332 <th> '194 <Spain> 411 <i> 363 <sh> 475 <minister> 166 <and> 411 <i> 47 <thi[thy]> 491 <n> 479 <k> ought
to be adhered to, for unless some important advan-

(Page 137)
tage can be gained
578 <bi[by]> 332 <th> 458 <e> 240 <c> 458 <e> 162 <s> 297 <si[sy]>
107 <on> 332 <th> '240 <c> 537 <la> 42 <im> 392 <a> .109 <w> 458 <e> 300 <shall> 542 <al[all]> 558 <way> [s] 386 <have>
332 <th> 458 <e> 112 <mean> '403 <of> 216 <en> 28 <for> 223 <ci[cy]> 360 <ng> 20 <it> [probably endocing error for "is"] 456 <to[too]> 568 <ua> lu551 <able>
456 <to[too]> 441 <b> '435 <r> '122 <li[ly]> 491 <n> 199 <qui> 363 <sh> [ed] 194 <Spain> 314 <may> 533 <flat> 258 <ter> 427 <her>
61 <self> 140 <with> 332 <th> '490 <hope> .403 <of> 128 <ga> 255 <in[inn]> 389 <ing> 38 <that> 392 <a> 544 <t> 392 <a>
253 <general> 160 <peace> 578 <bi[by]> 332 <th> '121 <fa> 274 <uo> 435 <r> 403 <of> 332 <th> [e] 57 <m> '419 <di[dy]> 392 <a> 456 <to[too]>
435 <r> .101 <which> 363 <sh> '411 <i> .393 <un> 279 <wil[will]> 389 <ing> 456 <to[too]> 325 <pu> 435 <r> 563 <cha> 162 <s> '
403 <of> 80 <u> .578 <bi[by]> 332 <th> '19 <sm> 542 <al[all]> 511 <est> 355 <con> 162 <s> '.37 <sion> 255 <in[inn]> 139 <this> 444 <how>
353 <ever> 411 <i> 355 <con> 223 <ci[cy]> 453 <eu> '363 <sh> '279 <wil[will]> 95 <fifty[fi,fy?]> 313 <nd> 50 <when> 456 <to[too]> 81 <late> 38 <that>
332 <th> [possibly an encoding error for "sh"]' 343 <has> 596 <been[ben]> 104 <l> '494 <ad> 578 <bi[by]> 392 <a> 592 <par> 480 <ti[ty]> 542 <al[all]> 435 <r> '
530 <gar> 118 <d> 456 <to[too]> 262 <tri[try]> 519 <fli[fly]> 360 <ng> 468 <inter> 511 <est> .456 <to[too]> 155 <sa> 280 <ca> 527 <ra>
95 <fifty[fi,fy?]> 240 <c> '39 <tha[tho?]> .'403 <of> 392 <a> 198 <mor> '501 <ex> 252 <ten[teen]> 414 <sive> 166 <and> 42 <im> 218 <port>
598 <ant> 594 <na> 308 <tu> 435 <r> '194 <Spain> 120 <can> 386 <have> 309 <no> 240 <c> 595 <lu> [should be 537 <la> ] 42 <im> .456 <to[too]>
332 <th> '211 <mi[my]> .297 <si[sy]> [s] 297 <si[sy]> [p] 351 <pi[py]> 470 <but> 334 <what> 76 <ar> '118 <d> '43 <ri[ry]> 80 <u> 348 <ed> 476 <from>
332 <th> '355 <con> 2 <que> 395 <st> .236 <our> 240 <c> 595 <lu> [should be 537 <la> ] 42 <im> [s] 76 <ar> [e] 568 <ua> 122 <li[ly]> 118 <d> 39 <tha[tho?]> .'
403 <of> 233 <br> 20 <it> 338 <ain> 76 <ar> '392 <a> 544 <t> 104 <l> 8 <ea> 395 <st> 41 <sp> '223 <ci[cy]> 587 <ous>
119 <bo> 332 <th> 279 <wil[will]> 441 <b> '573 <op> 260 <po> .348 <ed> 456 <to[too]> 427 <her> .392 <a> 544 <t> 392 <a>
253 <general> 160 <peace> 166 <and> 392 <a> .363 <sh> '180 <ka> [probably an encoding error for 312 <ha> ] . 561 <mad> '332 <th> '240 <c> '.37 <sion> 403 <of> 506 <gi>
233 <br> 542 <al[all]> 258 <ter> 392 <a> 213 <pr> [e] 104 <l> 42 <im> 255 <in[inn]> 76 <ar> 269 <y> 456 <to[too]> 392 <a> 160 <peace>

(Page 138)
363 <sh> '120 <can> 46 <hard> 122 <li[ly]> 501 <ex> 352 <p> '240 <c> 544 <t> 38 <that> 332 <th> '57 <m> '419 <di[dy]>
392 <a> 456 <to[too]> 435 <r> .416 <if> 449 <they> 407 <gra> 480 <ti[ty]> 958[should be 95 <fifty[fi,fy?]> ] 427 <her> 255 <in[inn]> 38 <that>
279 <wil[will]> 494 <ad> 118 <d> 133 <other> 228 <country> .456 <to[too]> 456 <to[too]> 101 <which> 363 <sh> '343 <has> 309 <no>
240 <c> 595 <lu> [should be 537 <la> ] 42 <im> 198 <mor> '592 <par> 480 <ti[ty]> 240 <c> 307 <ul> 76 <ar> [l] 269 <y> 392 <a> [s] 332 <th> '96 <right>
403 <of> 233 <br> 20 <it> 338 <ain> 411 <i> [s] 491 <n> 501 <ex> 544 <t> 456 <to[too]> 236 <our> .255 <in[inn]> 355 <con>
544 <t> '[s] 272 <ta> 536 <bl> 269 <y> 332 <th> [e] 464 <best> 38 <that> 120 <can> 441 <b> '162 <s> 440 <et> 44 <up>
588 <so> 38 <that> 259 <their[there]> 411 <i> .122 <li[ly]> 544 <t> 544 <t> 104 <l> '203 <do> 463 <ub> 544 <t> 416 <if>
332 <th> '491 <n> '539 <go> 480 <ti[ty]> 392 <a> 207 <tion> 438 <sho> 307 <ul> 118 <d> 573 <op> 216 <en> 50 <when>
332 <th> '333 <su> 240 <c> 240 <c> 458 <e> 162 <s> .403 <of> 236 <our> 392 <a> 5 <f> 5 <f> 267 <air> 276 <give> .
8 <ea> [should be 80 <u> ] . 42 <im> 218 <port> 225 <ance> 255 <in[inn]> 332 <th> '458 <e> 269 <y> 458 <e> .403 <of> 332 <th> [e]
57 <m> '419 <di[dy]> 392 <a> 456 <to[too]> 435 <r> .38 <that> 449 <they> 279 <wil[will]> 435 <r> '319 <co> 520 <g> 364 <ni[ny,nigh]>
27 <z> '236 <our> 96 <right> 416 <if> 107 <on> 332 <th> '133 <other> 362 <hand> 109 <w> '438 <sho> 307 <ul> 118 <d> 57 <m> '
440 <et> 140 <with> 469 <any> 435 <r> '80 <u> 8 <ea> [should be 86 <er[err]> ] 162 <s> '403 <of> 28 <for> 308 <tu> 491 <n> '332 <th> '
240 <c> 595 <lu> [should be 537 <la> ] 42 <im> .403 <of> 233 <br> 20 <it> 338 <ain> 279 <wil[will]> 441 <b> '137 <com> '198 <mor> '435 <r> '
41 <sp> 131 <ec[eck,ek]> 272 <ta> 536 <bl> '259 <their[there]> 578 <bi[by]> 166 <and> 332 <th> '109 <w> 8 <ea> 479 <k> 240 <c>
595 <lu> [should be 537 <la> ] 42 <im> .101 <which> 194 <Spain> 314 <may> 162 <s> 440 <et> 44 <up> 476 <from> 332 <th> '355 <con>
2 <que> 395 <st> 403 <of> 392 <a> 5 <f> 507 <ew> 255 <in[inn]> 355 <con> 297 <si[sy]> 118 <d> 86 <er[err]> 551 <able>
260 <po> 395 <st> .255 <in[inn]> 392 <a> 228 <country> 403 <of> 333 <su> 17 <ch> 42 <im> 541 <men> .'501 <ex> 252 <ten[teen]>
544 <t> 542 <al[all]> 435 <r> 8 <ea> 419 <di[dy]> 255 <in[inn]> 497 <part> 355 <con> 2 <que> 435 <r> 348 <ed> 578 <bi[by]>

(Page 139)
80 <u> .107 <on> 122 <li[ly]> 162 <s> 86 <er[err]> 80 <u> '392 <a> .76 <ar> 191 <gu> 559 <ment> 403 <of> 393 <un> 119 <bo>
393 <un> 118 <d> 268 <am> 578 <bi[by]> 207 <tion> 140 <with> 341 <out> 458 <e> .272 <ta> 536 <bl> 411 <i> 363 <sh>
389 <ing> 392 <a> 96 <right> 580 <mp> [should be 588 <so> ] 393 <un> 118 <d> 260 <po> 122 <li[ly]> 223 <ci[cy]> 142 <then> 240 <c> 86 <er[err]>
272 <ta> 255 <in[inn]> 122 <li[ly]> 419 <di[dy]> 240 <c> 272 <ta> 544 <t> '.80 <u> .392 <a> 59 <sur> '112 <mean> .403 <of>
392 <a> 544 <t> 272 <ta> 255 <in[inn]> 389 <ing> 139 <this> 208 <gr> 8 <ea> 544 <t> 333 <su> 17 <ch> 392 <a>
45 <ui[uy]> 539 <go> 132 <ro> 80 <u> .70 <pro> 162 <s> '[c]80 <u> 207 <tion> 403 <of> 332 <th> [e] 474 <war> 392 <a> .
279 <wil[will]> 435 <r> 348 <ed> 29 <uc[uck,uk]> '208 <gr> 8 <ea> 544 <t> 233 <br> 20 <it> 338 <ain> 456 <to[too]> 332 <th> '
491 <n> 131 <ec[eck,ek]> 458 <e> .297 <si[sy]> 480 <ti[ty]> 403 <of> 529 <make> 389 <ing> 332 <th> '198 <mor>
480 <ti[ty]> 95 <fifty[fi,fy?]> 389 <ing> 240 <c> 458 <e> .37 <sion> 101 <which> 194 <Spain> 435 <r> '199 <qui> 435 <r> '.
166 <and> 276 <give> 198 <mor> '[va] 122 <li[ly]> 419 <di[dy]> 480 <ti[ty]> 456 <to[too]> 332 <th> '96 <right> .140 <with> 101 <which>
109 <w> '76 <ar> '279 <wil[will]> 389 <ing> 107 <on> 240 <c> 86 <er[err]> 272 <ta> 255 <in[inn]> 355 <con> 419 <di[dy]> 207 <tion> .
456 <to[too]> 255 <in[inn]> 80 <u> '395 <st> 427 <her> 352 <p> 131 <ec[eck,ek]> 393 <un> 72 <ia> 43 <ri[ry]> 302 <aid[ayd]> .392 <a>
5 <f> 5 <f> 299 <ord> 348 <ed> 456 <to[too]> 80 <u> .279 <wil[will]> 441 <b> '332 <th> '450 <most> 499 <effect> 80 <u> 542 <al[all]>
112 <mean> .403 <of> 118 <d> 511 <est> 132 <ro> 269 <y> 389 <ing> 332 <th> '137 <com> 424 <mon> 428 <enemy>
166 <and> 435 <r> 348 <ed> 29 <uc[uck,uk]> 389 <ing> 524 <them> 456 <to[too]> 105 <ac[ack,ak]> 240 <c> 310 <ep> t333 <su>
17 <ch> 258 <ter> 57 <m> .392 <a> [s] 194 <Spain> 314 <may> 17 <ch> 80 <u> .'456 <to[too]> 419 <di[dy]> 240 <c> 272 <ta> 544 <t> '
58 <while> 332 <th> '325 <pu> 435 <r> 563 <cha> 162 <s> '403 <of> 236 <our> 96 <right> 279 <wil[will]> 216 <en> 551 <able>
427 <her> 456 <to[too]> 333 <su> 352 <p> 218 <port> 524 <them> 140 <with> 10 <dig> 364 <ni[ny,nigh]> 480 <ti[ty]> 166 <and> 216 <en>
551 <able> 427 <her> 456 <to[too]> 408 <ap> 352 <p> 545 <ear> 392 <a> 544 <t> 332 <th> '367 <congress> 392 <a> ' [this overbar sould be an underdot]
392 <a> 588 <so> 80 <u> 86 <er[err]> 136 <ei[ey]> 375 <gn> 260 <po> 109 <w> 86 <er[err]> 179 <who> 343 <has> 333 <su>

(Page 140)
352 <p> 218 <port> 348 <ed> 392 <a> 237 <dis> 270 <str> [e] 162 <s> [s] 348 <ed> 542 <al[all]> 122 <li[ly]> 140 <with>
341 <out> 11 <au> 288 <ail> 389 <ing> 427 <her> 61 <self> 403 <of> 38 <that> 237 <dis> 270 <str> 458 <e> ..456 <to[too]>
118 <d> 310 <ep> [r?] 422 <iu> [e?] 403 <of> 469 <any> 96 <right> .101 <which> 363 <sh> '343 <has> 281 <not> 204 <pa> 366 <id>
524 <them> 431 <an> 458 <e> 199 <qui> 568 <ua> 104 <l> 328 <ent> 28 <for> Americacon=
siders her Independence as placed beyond all
doubt
363 <sh> '441 <b> 327 <eg[egg]> 389 <ing> [should be ins] 40 <now> 456 <to[too]> 394 <look> 28 <for> 461 <ward> 456 <to[too]>
198 <mor> '42 <im> 218 <port> 598 <ant> 361 <ob> 411 <i> 131 <ec[eck,ek]> 544 <t> .363 <sh> '479 <k> 40 <now> [s] 332 <th> '
568 <ua> lu'403 <of> 332 <th> [e] 228 <country> 101 <which> 411 <i> .4 <wa> 363 <sh> 348 <ed> 578 <bi[by]> 332 <th> '
211 <mi[my]> 166 <and> [should be 162 <s>] 297 <si[sy]> [s] 297 <si[sy]> [p] 351 <pi[py]> 20 <it> 411 <i> [s] 542 <al[all]> 588 <so> 109 <w> 388 <el>[l] 479 <k>
40 <now> 491 <n> 456 <to[too]> 332 <th> '594 <na> 207 <tion> .403 <of> 453 <eu> 132 <ro> 352 <p> '578 <bi[by]>
332 <th> '240 <c> '.37 <sion> 403 <of> 427 <her> 96 <right> 456 <to[too]> 20 <it> 363 <sh> '411 <i> .155 <sa> 480 <ti[ty]> 162 <s>
95 <fifty[fi,fy?]> 348 <ed> 38 <that> 363 <sh> '120 <can> 70 <pro> 240 <c> 331 <ur> '42 <im> 218 <port> 598 <ant> 494 <ad>
568 <ua> 491 <n> 272 <ta> 520 <g> '255 <in[inn]> 137 <com> 57 <m> 86 <er[err]> 240 <c> '476 <from> 469 <any> 403 <of>
332 <th> '275 <mar> 411 <i> 184 <tim> '260 <po> 109 <w> 86 <er[err]> .255 <in[inn]> 453 <eu> 132 <ro> 352 <p> '30 <some>
403 <of> 332 <th> [e] 97 <north> 324 <ern> 260 <po> 252 <ten[teen]> 272 <ta> 544 <t> '.179 <who> 386 <have> 112 <mean> .403 <of>
276 <give> 389 <ing> 568 <ua> 122 <li[ly]> 419 <di[dy]> 480 <ti[ty]> 456 <to[too]> 236 <our> 240 <c> 595 <lu> [should be 537 <la> ] 42 <im> .
212 <wo> 307 <ul> 118 <d> 355 <con> 297 <si[sy]> 118 <d> 86 <er[err]> 431 <an> 458 <e> .272 <ta> 536 <bl> 411 <i>
363 <sh> 559 <ment> 590 <under> 332 <th> '435 <r> 511 <est> 543 <ric[rick]> 207 <tion> .140 <with> 101 <which> 109 <w> '
386 <have> 98 <off> 86 <er[err]> 348 <ed> 20 <it> 456 <to[too]> 194 <Spain> 392 <a> .17 <ch> 8 <ea> 381 <pl> 269 <y>

(Page 141)
578 <bi[by]> 431 <an> 542 <al[all]> 411 <i> 225 <ance> 140 <with> 80 <u> .166 <and> 392 <a> 522 <much> 208 <gr> 8 <ea> 252 <ten[teen]> [should be 258 <ter> ]
494 <ad> 80 <u> 225 <ance> 255 <in[inn]> 555 <money> 337 <than> 107 <on> '386 <have> 230 <yet> 39 <tha[tho?]> 399 <ug> 446 <h>
544 <t> 403 <of> 392 <a> 162 <s> 215 <king> 476 <from> 194 <Spain> 416 <if> 236 <our> 213 <pr> [e] 377 <sent>
109 <w> 598 <ant> 438 <sho> 307 <ul> 118 <d> 529 <make> 20 <it> 501 <ex> 352 <p> '419 <di[dy]> 328 <ent> 456 <to[too]>
380 <per> 333 <su> '139 <this> 366 <id> 8 <ea> 194 <Spain> 343 <has> 281 <not> 595 <lu> [should be 537 <la> ] 366 <id> 333 <su>
17 <ch> 361 <ob> 122 <li[ly]> 128 <ga> 207 <tion> 44 <up> 107 <on> 80 <u> [s] 281 <not> 140 <with> 395 <st> 166 <and> 389 <ing>
236 <our> 435 <r> '41 <sp> 131 <ec[eck,ek]> 544 <t> 405 <ful[full]> 166 <and> 204 <pa> 480 <ti[ty]> 328 <ent> 392 <a>
544 <t> 252 <ten[teen]> 207 <tion> 456 <to[too]> 427 <her> 392 <a> [s] 456 <to[too]> 435 <r> 525 <end> 86 <er[err]> 80 <u> [s]
484 <char> 520 <g> '551 <able> 140 <with> 332 <th> '21 <sl> 227 <ig> 446 <h> 544 <t> 511 <est> 118 <d> '208 <gr> '[e]
403 <of> 389 <ing> 527 <ra> 480 <ti[ty]> 308 <tu> 118 <d> '255 <in[inn]> 588 <so> 203 <do> 389 <ing> 487 <you>
279 <wil[will]> 259 <their[there]> 28 <for> '380 <per> 297 <si[sy]> 395 <st> 255 <in[inn]> 332 <th> '122 <li[ly]> 491 <n> '255 <in[inn]> 101 <which>
487 <you> 40 <now> 76 <ar> '118 <d> 131 <ec[eck,ek]> 595 <lu> [should be 537 <la> ] 435 <r> 389 <ing> 501 <ex> 352 <p> 122 <li[ly]>
123 <county> [should be 223 <ci[cy]> ] 544 <t> 122 <li[ly]> 38 <that> 332 <th> '240 <c> '.37 <sion> .487 <you> 70 <pro> 260 <po> .'76 <ar> '
107 <on> 122 <li[ly]> 419 <di[dy]> 240 <c> 272 <ta> 544 <t> 348 <ed> 578 <bi[by]> 245 <your> 118 <d> '.150 <ir> '
456 <to[too]> 529 <make> 545 <ear> 122 <li[ly]> 166 <and> 45 <ui[uy]> 539 <go> 132 <ro> 80 <u> .473 <ef> 28 <for>
544 <t> .254 <against> 332 <th> '137 <com> 424 <mon> 428 <enemy> 38 <that> 416 <if> 449 <they> 76 <ar> '281 <not>
105 <ac[ack,ak]> 240 <c> 310 <ep> 544 <t> 384 <jersey> [should be 348 <ed> ] 588 <so> 266 <soon> 166 <and> 44 <up> 107 <on> 333 <su>
17 <ch> 544 <t> 86 <er[err]> 57 <m> .392 <a> [s] 456 <to[too]> [a] 5 <f> 5 <f> 299 <ord> 487 <you> 392 <a> 70 <pro>
162 <s> 41 <sp> 131 <ec[eck,ek]> 544 <t> 403 <of> 361 <ob> 272 <ta> 255 <in[inn]> 389 <ing> 139 <this> 118 <d> '
297 <si[sy]> 435 <r> '551 <able> 525 <end> 487 <you> 279 <wil[will]> 281 <not> 355 <con> 297 <si[sy]> 118 <d> 86 <er[err]>
245 <your> 403 <of> 182 <fer> .392 <a> .578 <bi[by]> 313 <nd> 389 <ing> 44 <up> 107 <on> 487 <you> 411 <i> 268 <am>

(Page 142)
380 <per> 333 <su> 494 <ad> 348 <ed> 38 <that> 255 <in[inn]> 139 <this> 411 <i> 41 <sp> 8 <ea> 479 <k> 332 <th> '
84 <sen> 480 <ti[ty]> 559 <ment> 403 <of> 367 <congress> 166 <and> 487 <you> 314 <may> 118 <d> 388 <el> 422 <iu>
86 <er[err]> 524 <them> 392 <a> .333 <su> 17 <ch> your never having spoke[n]
403 <of> 332 <th> '431 <an> 566 <sw> 86 <er[err]> 403 <of> 261 <france> 194 <Spain> 166 <and> 208 <gr> 8 <ea>
544 <t> 233 <br> 20 <it> 338 <ain> 456 <to[too]> 332 <th> '70 <pro> 260 <po> 155 <sa> 104 <l> .403 <of>
332 <th> '57 <m> 348 <ed> 72 <ia> 456 <to[too]> 435 <r> .529 <make> .57 <m> '203 <do> 463 <ub> 544 <t>
246 <whether> 487 <you> 386 <have> 162 <s> '216 <en> 524 <them> 38 <that> 403 <of> 194 <Spain> 411 <i> 386 <have>
162 <s> '216 <en> If I can get the other copied and
cyphered before their vessel sails, I will send
them to you, if not I enclose so much
403 <of>
332 <th> '431 <an> 566 <sw> 86 <er[err]> 403 <of> 261 <france> 392 <a> .435 <r> '595 <lu> [should be 537 <la> ] 544 <t> '.
456 <to[too]> 194 <Spain> 411 <i> 162 <s> 458 <e> '392 <a> 80 <u> .'38 <that> 314 <may> 441 <b> '561 <mad> '
403 <of> 20 <it>
No incidents since my last have taivried*[tacrried*]
up with communicating, tho Enemy are
drawing lines across New York Island at Mr*
Slliok* and making every preparation for
defence - The Eastern and Northern States
166 <and>
30 <some> 403 <of> 332 <th> '283 <south> 324 <ern> 395 <st> 392 <a> 544 <t> '.areusing
the most vigorous exertions to obtain a respect-
able face for the opening Campaign

(Page 143)
261 <france> 180 <ka> [should be "ha"] 162 <s> 104 <l> 328 <ent> 80 <u> 162 <s> 78 <six> 82 <million> 403 <of> 292 <liver[livre]> .28 <for>
139 <this> 371 <ya[yea]> 435 <r> 403 <of> 531 <dollar> .476 <from> 194 <Spain> 411 <i> .542 <al[all]> 38 <that> 411 <i> .491 <n>
131 <ec[eck,ek]> 458 <e> 162 <s> .76 <ar> 269 <y> 456 <to[too]> 216 <en> 551 <able> 80 <u> .456 <to[too]> 529 <make> 332 <th> '
450 <most> 41 <sp> 150 <ir> 20 <it> 348 <ed> 501 <ex> [er] 207 <tion> .Our Army is at present
well clad, and well fed and as well disciplin-
ed as any Army in the World
332 <th> '28 <for> 240 <c> '392 <a>
544 <t> 289 <west> 260 <po> 255 <in[inn]> 544 <t> 578 <bi[by]> 332 <th> [e] 77 <twenty> 440 <et> 446 <h> 403 <of> 314 <may>
279 <wil[will]> 268 <am> 175 <o> 393 <un> 544 <t> 456 <to[too]> 552 <about> 252 <ten[teen]> 90 <thousand> 541 <men> 166 <and> 279 <wil[will]>
407 <gra> 273 <du> 542 <al[all]> 269 <y> 255 <in[inn]> 240 <c> 435 <r> '392 <a> .'480 <ti[ty]> 104 <l> [l] 162 <s>
310 <ep> 544 <t> 406 <em> 441 <b> 86 <er[err]> 392 <a> .332 <th> '435 <r> 131 <ec[eck,ek]> [r] 45 <ui[uy]> 544 <t> .
120 <can> 441 <b> '589 <col> 104 <l> 131 <ec[eck,ek]> 544 <t> 348 <ed> 588 <so> 38 <that> 236 <our> 573 <op>
86 <er[err]> 392 <a> 544 <t> 389 <ing> 28 <for> 240 <c> '259 <their[there]> 255 <in[inn]> 240 <c> lu118 <d> 389 <ing>
332 <th> '183 <french> 342 <tro> 573 <op> .279 <wil[will]> 392 <a> 443 <mo> 393 <un> 544 <t> 578 <bi[by]> 332 <th> '
441 <b> 327 <eg[egg]> 255 <in[inn]> 389 <ing> 403 <of> 354 <june> 456 <to[too]> 552 <about> 95 <fifty[fi,fy?]> 5 <f> 252 <ten[teen]> 382 <or>
78 <six> 252 <ten[teen]> 90 <thousand> 541 <men> 501 <ex> 240 <c> lu414 <sive> 403 <of> 211 <mi[my]> 122 <li[ly]> 480 <ti[ty]> 392 <a>
101 <which> 314 <may> 441 <b> '591 <cal[call]> 348 <ed> 255 <in[inn]> 416 <if> 550 <necessary> I mention this
because I know great misrepresentations have gone
abroad in this subject. I have just received a
Letter from Mr. Carmichael, which, I shall

(Page 144)
answer if possible by the conveyance, be pleased
to present my complements to him, and the
rest of your family. I am Dear Sir
with great Esteem and Regard
your most obett. humble servant.
Regard Robt R Livingston

Notes

(1) It is noted every instance but one of "la" (as in "claim", "laid", and "declaring") is encoded with 595 <lu>, while it should be 537 <la>. Instead, every instance of "lu" as in "valuable", "value", "including", and "exclusive" is written in plaintext.

(2) The note preceding the decoding of Jay Papers ID 90353 may be of interest: "N.B. There appear to be several errors in the cyphers, some letters being mis[s]pelled, others omitted & some misplaced, the words however being pretty evident I shall take no notice of these mistakes in this copy".



First posted on 23 September 2008. Last modified on 15 October 2008.
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